Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Neurological Problems

  1. A. Neonatal seizures: Causes
    1. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
    2. Hypocalcemia
    3. Hypoglycemia
    4. Meningitis
    5. Polycythemia
  1. Others:
    1. Developmental defects of the brain
    2. Birth injuries
    3. intraventricular hemorrhage
    4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
    5. Erbs palsy: C5-6 upper cervical root-due to Lateral traction of head.
    6. Klumpke’s palsy: Lower cervical roots during breech delivery.
  2. Intrauterine infections
    1. Pyridoxine dependency
    2. Inborn error of metabolism

Patteren of Seizures

  1. Focal: Metabolic disease
  2. Tonic: Diffuse CNS disease, IVH
  3. Myoclonic: Diffuse CNS disease- worse prognosis
  4. Subtle seizures: Eye Jerking/blinking Q – most common seizure in neonate Q

Seizures due to hypocalcemia BEST PROGNOSIS

Causes of Neonatal seizures

  1. Developmental defects of the brain e.g., Microcephaly, hydrocephalus, porencephalm, polymicrogyria, hetrerotropia of grey matter, hydrencephaly and agenesis of corpus callosum.
  2. Perinatal complications. Intracranial birth injuries and parinatal anoxia. Intraventricular hemorrhage (more common in critically ill asphyxiated preterm babies) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (more often in near term babies with history of difficult labor).
  3. Perinatal infections. Intrauterine infections, neonatal septicemia and meningitis.
  4. Metabolic causes. Hypoglycemia (blood glucose level below 40mg/dl), hypocalcemia (serum calcium level below 7mg/dl), hypomagnesemia, hyperbilirubinemia (kernicterus), hypo or hyper-natremia, alkalosis, pyridoxine dependency and inborn errors of metabolism.
  5. Narcotic withdrawal syndrome. Babies born to mothers addicted to narcotics may suffer from convulsions.
    1. 20-25% of Neonatal mortality
    2. Primary Apnea / Secondary apnea (gasping, flaccid and4-BP)
    3. TABCs of Resuscitation:
      1. T Maintain temperature
      2. A Establish open airway
      3. B Initiate breathing
      4. C Maintain circulation

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name