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Medicine

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Kidney

Question
7 out of 20
 

Nephrotic syndrome may be associated with:(PGI Nov 12)



A Total cholesterol
B LDL cholesterol

C VLDL cholesterol
D Triglycerides

E HDL cholesterol

Ans. E HDL cholesterol

Table: Conditions associated with Renal Vein Thrombosis (Ref, H 18th Pg2382)

a. Trauma

b. Extrinsic compression (lymph nodes, aortic aneurysm, tumor)

c. Invasion by renal cell carcinoma

d. Dehydration (infants)

e. Nephrotic syndrome

f. Pregnancy or oral contraceptives

Extra Edge: CT Angiography is the most sensitive test for renal vein thrombosis. (Ref, H 18th Pg2382)

Extra Edge:

Nephrotic Syndrome: Common Renal pathologies causing Renal Vein Thrombosis

i. Membranous Glomerulonephritis (strongest association)

ii. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

iii. Amyloidosis

iv. Lupus Nephritis

Extra Edge:

Treatment of nephrotic syndrome

1. Bed – rest

2. If GFR> 60 ml/min, no dietary restriction required. If GFR< 60 ml/min dietary protein restriction of 0.8 gm/kg/d.

3. Diuretics relieve oedema. Overzealous use of diuretics should be avoided as the patients are often intravascularly depleted and may precipitate prerenal failure.

Complications

1. Venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (urinary loss of antithrombin III, low plasma volume, increased, Fibrinogen)

2. Infections (pneumococcal peritonitis)

3. Hypercholesterolemia (atherosclerosis, xanthomata) (FAQ) 'The lipid profile in Nephrotic syndrome is

characterized by elevations in total plasma cholesterol, VLDL and LDL and often (increases in later stages) triglyceride levels reduced HDL.

4. Hypovolemia and renal failure

5. Loss of specific binding proteins, e.g. transferrin, thyroid – binding globulin.

Kidney Flashcard List

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