Normal value for prostate specific antigen (PSA) is:
|B||4-10 ng/ ml|
|D||20-25 ng/ ml|
a. PSA expression is strongly influenced by androgens.
b. Immunohistochemical detection of PSA within the prostate is characterized by bimodal peaks between 0 and 6 months and after 10 years, correlating directly with testosterone levels .
c. Serum PSA becomes detectable at puberty with increases in luteinizing hormone and testosterone
d. In the absence of prostate cancer, serum PSA levels vary with age, race, and prostate volume.
e. In men without BPH, the rate of change in PSA is 0.04 ng/mL per year , compared with 0.07 to 0.27 ng/mL per year in men with BPH who are between the ages of 60 and 85 years .
f. Elevated serum PSA levels are probably a product of disruption of cellular architecture within the prostate gland .
g. The loss of the barrier afforded by the basal layer and basement membranes within the normal gland is a likely site for the egress of PSA into the circulation.
h. This can occur in the setting of prostate disease (BPH, prostatitis, prostate cancer) and with prostate manipulation (prostate massage, prostate biopsy) .
i. Prostatic trauma such as occurs after prostatic biopsy can result in a leak of PSA into the circulation that may require more than 4 weeks for return to baseline values .
k. Prostate specific antigen
Glycoprotein produced by cells of the prostate gland.
Also Known as kallikrein III, seminin, semenogelase, P-30 antigen, Gama - seminoprotein.
Liquefies semen and allows sperm to swim freely.