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Nutritional profiles of principal foods

  1. Cereals
    1. provide 70-80% of total energy intake & 50% of total protein intake in Indian diet.
    2. Energy: 350 Kcal/ 100 gm.
    3. Protein: 6-12 g/100 gm.
    4. Minerals and B group vitamins.
    5. Limiting amino acid: lysine and threonine.Q
  2. Rice
    1. Good source of B group vitamin especially thiamine and devoid of vitamin A, D & C.
    2. Milling deprives the rice of 15% of protein, 75 % of thiamine and 60% of riboflavin and niacin.
    3. Washing of rice in large quantity of water 60 % loss of water-soluble minerals and vitamins.
  1. Wheat: limiting amino acids are lysine and threonine.
  2. Maize
    1. Deficient in lysine and tryptophan.
    2. Some strains contains excess of leucine.
    3. Leucine interferes with conversion of tryptophan to niacin.
  3. Millets
    1. Small grains that are grounded and eaten without removing the outer layer.
    2. Jowar / Kaffir corn/ Milo: contains high leucine
    3. Bajra contains B group vitamins, calcium and iron.
    4. Ragi is rich in calcium.
  4. Pulses
    1. 20-25 % proteins
    2. Limiting amino acid: methionine and cysteine Q
    3. Excess of lysine
    4. Rich in minerals and B group vitamins riboflavin and thiamine
    5. Dry pulse lack vitamin C
    6. Germination of pulses contain higher concentration of vitamin C & B.
    7. Fermentation enhances riboflavin, thiamine and niacin.
    8. Raw pulses contain phytates and tannins.
    9. Oligosaccharides cause flatulence.
    10. Soya beans: 432 Kcal of energy, 40% protein, 20% fat, 240 mg of Ca , 10.4 mg of Fe and 4% mineral.
  5. Green leafy vegetables
    1. Rich source of carotene, calcium, iron and vitamin with exception of vitamin B12.
    2. Fairly good source of riboflavin, folic acid and lysine
    3. Deficient in sulphur containing amino acid
    4. Energy value: 20-25 kcal/100g and recommended daily intake: 40 g for adult
  6. Nuts &oil seeds
    1. Groundnuts contain 26.7% proteins.
    2. Pistachio is richest source of iron containing 14 mg of iron per 100 g.
  7. Fruits
    1. Vitamin C content per 100 g of fruits; Orange 68, Guava 212 and Amla 600.
    2. Carotene content per 100 g of fruit: mango 2210, orange 2240 and papaya 2240.
    3. Custard apple is rich in Ca.
    4. Recommended daily intake of fruits is 85 gm.
  8. Milk
    1. Animal milk contains 3 times more protein than human milk per 100 gm
      (Buffalo milk: 4.3, cow milk: 3.2, goat milk 3.3 and human milk 1.1)
    2. Human milk contains higher amount of tryptophan and sulphur containing amino acid especially cysteine.
    3. Fat content of human milk is 3.4% compared to 8.8% in buffalo milk.
    4. Human milk contains higher percentage of linolenic and oleic acid than animal milk.
    5. Human milk contains more sugar.
    6. Skimmed milk is free from fat.
    7. Toned milk: 1 part water + 1 part natural milk+ 1/8th part of skimmed milk powder.
      Equivalent to cow milk.
(AIIMS Nov’08)  Comparision

 

Buffalo

Cow

Goat

Human

Fat (g)

6.5

4.1

4.5

3.4

Protein (g)

4.3

3.2

3.3

1.1

Lactose (g)

5.1

4.4

4.6

7.4

Calcium (mg)

210

120

170

28

Iron (mg)

0.2

0.2

0.3

-

Vito C (mg)

1

2

1

3

Minerals (g)

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.1

Water (g)

81.0

87

86.8

88

Energy (kcal)

117

67

72

65

Difference between cow milk and human milk

  1. Human milk has only one third of the protein concentration compared to cow milk.Q
  2. Human milk has slightly more fat than cow milk. Also, human milk contains a lipase enzyme because of which human milk fat is digested easily.
  3. Human milk has almost double the amount of lactose compared to cow milk. Lactose provides an easily digestible source of energy. High lactose content helps in myelination in the growing nerve tissue of the baby. Also, part of lactose is converted to lactic acid in the intestine, which prevents growth of undesirable bacteria in the intestine.
  4. Human milk contains the bifidus factor, which is a nitrogen-containing carbohydrate. Bifidus factor is necessary for the growth of Lactobacillus bifidus, which converts lactose to lactic acid.
  5. Human milk, especially the colostrum, contains large amounts of Immunoglobulin A, which is not absorbed but acts in the intestine against certain bacteria [such as E. coli] and viruses.
  6. Lysozyme, an enzyme, is present in human milk in concentrations several thousand times that of cow milk. Lysozyme breaks down certain harmful bacteria and also protects against various viruses.
  1. Egg
    1. Contains all nutrients except carbohydrate and vitamin C.
    2. 12 % egg comprises shell, 58% egg white and 30% egg yolk.
    3. 1 egg: 60 gm, 6 gm protein, 6 gm fat, 30 mg calcium, 1.5 mg iron and 70 Kcal.
    4. NPU = 100
    5. Cholesterol is 250 mg/ egg
    6. Boiling destroys avidin a substance that that prevents absorption of biotin.
  2. Fish
    1. 15- 25% proteins
    2. Rich in unsaturated FA and vitamin A & D
    3. Fish bones are rich in Ca, Fluorine and phosphorus
    4. Oyster and lobster are rich in iodine.
    5. Rich in eicosapentaenoic acid.Q
    6. Fresh water fish do not contain iodine
      Fish is a relatively poor source of iron as compared to meat(AIIMS Nov’08)
  3. Meat
    1. 15- 20% protein but good source of essential amino acid.
    2. Iron: 2-4-mg/100 g, which is easily absorbable.
    3. Poor in Ca and rich in phosphorus.
  4. Fats & oils
    1. Vegetable origin
    2. Rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, except coconut and palm oil.
    3. Devoid of vitamin A & D excepting red palm oil (extremely rich in carotene).
    4. Animal origin:  Poor source of essential amino acid.
Chemical composition of tea, coffee and cocoa (values per cup of 150ml)

 

Coffee

Tea

Cocoa

Protein (g)

1.8

0.9

7.2

Fat (g)

2.2

1.1

8.8

Carbohydrate (g)

17.8

16.4

26.2

Kcal

98.0

79.0

213.0

Others

Caffeine, coffeol (volatile oil) and tannic acid

Caffeine, tannic acid, theophylline and essential volatile oil

Theobromine

  1. Alcohol
    1. Alcohol content of beverages   5-6 % in beer, 40-45% in gin, rum and brandy and provides 7 kcal per gm.
      Vinegar: 3.7% acetic acid.
    2. Indian Reference Man and Woman (AI’09, AIIMS MAY & Nov’08): Revised

 

Man

Woman

Age in years

18-29

18-29

Weight in Kg

60

55

Time spent in hours:

Work

 

8

 

8 (general house hold/ light industry/ moderately active

Bed

8

8

Sitting & moving

4-6

4-6

Walking/recreation/ household

2

2

Others

Free from disease

Physically fit for active work

Healthy

Energy allowance per day

Light work

Moderate work

Heavy work

 

2320

2730

3490

 

1900

2230

2850

Recommended protein intake g/day

60

55

  1. Energy requirement for basal metabolism is 1 kcal/hour for every kg of b. wt. for an adult.
  2. 2% decline of resting metabolism for each decade for adult.
  3. After 40 years of age energy requirement is reduced by 5% each decade until 60 years of age and 10% thereafter.
  1. Dietary goals
    1. Dietary fat should be limited to approximately 15-30% of total daily intake.
    2. Saturated fats should not contribute more than 10% of total energy intake.
    3. Proteins should contribute 10-15 % of total daily intake.
    4. Excessive intake of refined carbohydrate should be avoided.
    5. Intake of fat and alcohol should be avoided.
    6. Salt intake on an average 5 g/day and in tropical countries 15 g/day.
    7.  Junk foods to be restricted.
  2. Lathyrism
    1. Neurolathyrism in humans and Osteolathyrism in animals.
    2. Prevalent in MP, UP, Bihar, Orrisa, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Assam and Gujarat.
    3. Occurs in adults consuming Lathyrus sativus/ Khesri Dhal/ Teora Dhal/ Lak Dhal/ Batra/ Gharas/ Matra.
    4. Toxin BOAA – Beta oxalyl Amino Alanine.
    5. Disease
      Age: 15-45 years
      Characteristic: Spastic paralysis of lower limbs

      Latent stageNo stick stage→ One stick stage Two stick stage Crawler stage.
    6. Interventions
      Vitamin C prophylaxis: Daily administration of 500-1000 mg for 1 week.
      Removal of toxin
      1. Steeping method: pulse is soaked in hot water for 2 hourswater drained.
        Domestic method
      2. Parboiling: large scale operation
        Soaking of pulse in limewater overnight boiling.
      3. Genetic approach and education.

Indian Reference Man and Woman (AI’09, AIIMS MAY & Nov’08) : Revised

  Man Woman
Age in years 18-29 18-29
Weight in Kg 60 55
Height 1.73 m 1.61 m
BMI 20.3 21.2
Time spent in hours:
Work
 
8
 
8 (general house hold/ light industry/ moderately active
Bed 8 8
Sitting & moving 4-6 4-6
Walking/recreation/ household 2 2
Others Free from disease
Physically fit for active work
Healthy
Energy allowance per day
  • Light work
  • Moderate work
  • Heavy work
 
2320
2730
3490
 
1900
2230
2850
Recommended protein intake g/day 60 55
  1. Energy requirement for basal metabolism is 1 kcal/hour for every kg of b. wt. for an adult.
  2. 2% decline of resting metabolism for each decade for adult.
  3. After 40 years of age energy requirement is reduced by 5% each decade until 60 years of age and 10% thereafter.




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