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Iodine

Requirements:

 

0-12m   50 μg

 

1-6 yrs  90 μg

 

7-I2yrs I20 μg

 

>12yrs 150 μg

 

Iodine deficiency disorders:

 

-  Goitre, Juvenile hypothyroidism. Impaired mental function. retardation of physical and sexual growth Endemic cretinism —

 

Mental subnormality, deaf-mutism, spastic diplegia and dwarfism

 

Excessive intake of iodine (> 20 mg/day) also results in endemic goiter and hypothyroidism.

 

Iodine status of a population can be assessed by assessment of:

  1. Goiter rate
  2. Urinary iodine concentration
  3. T4 or TSH levels 

Zinc:

  1. Chiefly distributed in skeletal muscles (60%) and bones (30%)
  2. Part of several .enzyme systems of the body e.g. Carbonic anhydrase.

Requirements: Children - 10 mg/day                                  


Deficiency disorders:

  1. Growth retardation
  2. Hypogonadism
  3. Anorexia
  4. Alopecia
  5. Acral dermatitis
  6. Acro dermatitis enteropathica
  7. Behavioral changes and increased susceptibility to infections
  8. Hepatosplenomegaly
  9. Microcytic anemia
    1. Zinc deficiency in pregnancy---Premature in delivery, Intrauterine growth retardation and neural tube defects of the fetus.
    2. Early indicator of zinc deficiency
       
      Reduction in the levels of thymulin. a thymic hormone,
    3. Zinc fortification of diets - improvement in dark adaptation conjunctival integrity, immunocompetence, growth rate and reduced perinatal mortality.

Dose of Zinc in acute Diarrhea
 
2-6 month – 10 mg/day x 14 days
 
76 month – 20 mg/day x 14 days




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