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Categories and Causes of Fetal Death

Fetal (25-40%)

 

        Chromosomal anomalies

 

        Nonchromosomal birth defects

 

        Nonimmune hydrops

 

        Infections
 

Placental (25-35%)

        Abruption

 

        Cord accident

 

        Placental insufficiency

 

        Intrapartum asphyxia

 

        Previa

 

        Twin-to-twin transfusion

 

        Chorioamnionitis
 

Maternal (5-10%)

        Antiphospholipid antibodies

 

        Diabetes

 

        Hypertensive disorders

 

        Trauma

 

        Abnormal labor

 

        Sepsis

 

        Acidosis/hypoxia

 

        Uterine rupture

 

        Postterm pregnancy

 

        Drugs
 

Unexplained (25-35%)

  1. Hypertensive disorders and diabetes are the two most commonly cited maternal diseases, associated with stillbirths.
  2. Thromboplastin from the dead fetus can enter the maternal system and cause Ole.
  3. This only happens when the dead fetus is retained inside for 3-4 weeks.-

Radiological signs of IUFD

Sign

Interval (After Death)

Robert sign (gas in great vessels)

12h

Spalding sign (overlapping of skull bones)

1 week

Blair-Hartley /Ball sign (hyperflexion/hyperextension of spine with overcrowding of ribs

3-4 weeks

 





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