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Oncogenic Viruses

  1. DNA viruses
    1. HPV: (Human papilloma virus)
      1. CA cervix – by types 16, 18, 31, 33
      2. Laryngeal papilloma
      3. Benign squamous papillomas
      4. Vulval & penile cancers
    2. Epstein – Barr virus
      1. Burkitt’s lymphoma
      2. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
      3. Hadgkin’s disease
      4. B cell lymphoma (not T cell lymphoma)
    3. HBV & HCV: HCC (Hepatocellular carcinoma)
    4. HSV: (Herpes simplex virus)
      Type I  Carcinoma lip
      Type II  Carcinoma cervix
    5. CMV: Kaposi sarcoma
  2. RNA viruses Q
    1. Retroviruses
       HTLV-1: Adult T cell leukemia/(also causes Tropical spastic paraplegia)
       HTLV-II: T cell variant of Hairy cell leukemia.
       HTLV-III (now HIV)
    • Non hodgkin’s lymphoma (Both B & T cell)
    • Kaposi’s sarcoma
    • Squamous cell carcinoma
Genes Associated with Hereditary Cancer
Gene Location Syndrome Cancer Sites and Associated Traits
APC 17q21 Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) Colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, duodenal and gastric tumors, desmoids, medulloblastomas, osteomas
BMPRIA 10q21-q22 Juvenile polyposis coli Juvenile polyps of the GI tract, GI and colorectal malignancy
BRCA1 17q21 Breast-ovarian syndrome Breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer
BRCA2 13q12.3 Breast-ovarian syndrome Breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, cancer of the gallbladder and bile duct, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, melanoma
p16; CDK4 9p21; 12q14 Familial melanoma Melanoma, pancreatic cancer, dysplastic nevi, atypical moles
CDH1 16q22 Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Gastric cancer
hCHK2 22q12.1 Li-Fraumeni syndrome and hereditary breast cancer Breast cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, brain tumors
hMLH1; hMSH2; hMSH6; PMS1; hPMS2 3p21; 2p22-21; 2p16; 2q31-33; 7p22 Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and renal pelvis, and carcinomas of the stomach, small bowel, ovary, and pancreas
MEN1 11q13 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 Pancreatic islet cell cancer, parathyroid hyperplasia, pituitary adenomas
MET 7q31 Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma Renal cancer
NF1 17q11 Neurofibromatosis type 1 Neurofibroma, neurofibrosarcoma, acute myelogenous leukemia, brain tumors
NF2 22q12 Neurofibromatosis type 2 Acoustic neuromas, meningiomas, gliomas, ependymomas
PTC 9q22.3 Nevoid basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma
PTEN 10q23.3 Cowden disease Breast cancer, thyroid cancer, endometrial cancer
rb 13q14 Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma, sarcomas, melanoma, and malignant neoplasms of brain and meninges
RET 10q11.2 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 Medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, parathyroid hyperplasia
SDHB; SDHC; SDHD 1p363.1-p35; 11q23; 1q21 Hereditary paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma Paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma
SMAD4/DPC4 18q21.1 Juvenile polyposis coli Juvenile polyps of the GI tract, GI and colorectal malignancy
STK11 19p13.3 Peutz-Jeghers syndrome GI tract carcinoma, breast carcinoma, testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer, benign pigmentation of the skin and mucosa
p53 17p13 Li-Fraumeni syndrome Breast cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, osteosarcoma, brain tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma, Wilms' tumor, phyllodes tumor of the breast, pancreatic cancer, leukemia, neuroblastoma
TSC1; TSC2 9q34; 16p13 Tuberous sclerosis Multiple hamartomas, renal cell carcinoma, astrocytoma
VHL 3p25 von Hippel-Lindau disease Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas of retina and central nervous system, pheochromocytoma
WT 11p13 Wilms' tumor Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, mental retardation
  1. Tumors showing spontaneous regression: Q
    1. RCC
    2. Neuroblastoma
    3. Retinoblastoma
    4. Malignant melanoma
    5. Multiple myeloma
    6. Choriocarcinoma
      (never in: Osteosarcoma)

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