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Surgeries of Orbit

  1. Enucleation
    1. Procedure : Removal of eyeball with stump of optic nerve leaving behind the extra ocular muscles
    2. May be replaced by implant
      1. PMMA implant        
      2. Hydroxyapatite implant
    3. Indications
      1. Blind painful eye
      2. Intraocular tumor
      3. Severe trauma with risk of sympathetic ophthalmitis
      4. Phthisis bulbi
      5. Microphthalmia
      6. Cosmetic deformity
  2. Evisceration: Removal of entire intraocular contents of te eye, leaving the scleral shell and extraocular muscle attachment intact*
    Indication  Panophthalmitis * infective conditions
  1. Intraocular tumor
  2. Severe trauma with risk of sympathetic ophthalmitis
  1. Exenteration : Complete removal of eyeball, the retrobulbar orbital soft tissues, and most or all of the eyelids
Indication : 
  1. Malignancies (Rhabdomyosarcoma)           
  2. Mucormycosis
  3. Chronic orbital pain                         
  4. Orbital deformities

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