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Increased Bone Density (Radiological)

  1. Pathogenic Mechanism
    1. Periosteal reaction (seen in tumors & infections)
    2. Thickening & expansion of cortex
    3. Thickening of cancellous bone seen in traumatic collapse
    4. Increased (& coarse) trabeculse
    5. Sclerosis and dead bone (eg sequestrum seen in osteomyelitis)
  2. Causes
    1. Children
      1. Caffey’s disease craniotubular dysplasia & hyperostosis
      2. Osteopetrosis
      3. Pyknodysostosis
      4. Poisoning-lead , fluoride
      5. Hypervitaminosis A & D
      6. Renal osteodystrophy
    2. Adult
      1. Avascular necrosis
      2. Paget’s disease
      3. Myelosclerosis
      4. Fluorosis
      5. Mastocytosis, Lymphoma
      6. Osteoblastic metastasis
      7. Renal osteodystrophy
    3. Causes of Generalized Osteosclerosis
      1. Osteopetrosis(marble bone disease)
      2. Diaphyseal dysplasia (Engelmarm’s / Camuratis Disease)
      3. Fluorosis
      4. Caffey’s disease
      5. Pagets disease
      6. Renal osteodystrophy
      7. Secondary from prostate
      8. Pyknodysostosis
      9. Candle / spotted /stripped bones due to melorheostosis (Leri’s disease), osteopoikilosis & osteopathica striata respectively.
      10. Idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis





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