- Complete absence of limb is called amelia, almost complete absence (d/t deficiency of long bones, a mere stub remaining) phocomelia and partial absence (d/t partial or total absence of fingers or hand) ectromelia.
- Phocomelia (Seal Flipper) in the complete form, the arm and foreann are absent in upper limb and thigh and leg are absent in lower limb (the hands and feet sprout directly from trunk)The deficiency may be proximal (arms and thighs missing) or distal (fore arms and leg missing).
- Amelia is complete absence of a limb and amelia totalis is complete absence of all four limbs.
- Ectrocheria is total or partial absence of hand, ectromelia/ectrodactyly is total or partial absence of fingers or hand, ectrophalangia is absence of one or more phalanges, ectropodia is total or partial absence of foot.
- Hemimelia is absence of one of the paired bones of the limbs. Post axial means ulnar side of upper limb & fibular side of lower limb and preaxial is pertaining to radial side of the upper limb, and tibial side of lower limb.
Madelungâ€™s deformity involves wrist and forearm & is characterized by anterior - ulnar bowing of radius and a dorsally prominent ulna (subluxation) with broadening of wrist.