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Diagnostic Guidelines


Conditions not directly attributable to gross brain damage or disease, or to another psychiatric disorder, meeting the following criteria:

  1. Markedly disharmonious attitudes and behaviour, involving usually several areas of functioning, e.g. affectivity, arousal, impulse control ways of perceiving and thinking, and style of relating to others;
  2. The abnormal behaviour pattern is enduring, of long sanding and not limited to episodes of mental illness.
  3. The abnormal behaiour pattern is pervasive and clearly maladaptive to a broad range of personal and social situations;
  4. The above manifestations always appear during childhood or adolescence and continue into adulthood;
  5. The disorder leads to considerable personal distress but this may only become apparent late in its course
  6. The disorder is usually but not invariably, associated with significant problems in occupational and social performance.

Clear evidence is usually required of the presence of at least three of the traits or behaviours given in the clinical description.

Personality disorder tends to appear in late childhood or adolescence and continues to be manifest into adulthood.

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