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Hormones

Hormones during pregnancy
 
 

Increased

Decreased

Unchanged

Growth hormone

ACTH

Prolactin

Thyroxine binding globulin

Total T3, T4

Aldosterone

Testosterone, androstenedione and cortisol

Basal metabolic rate

Insulin Resistance

LH

FSH

S. iodine

DHEA-S

 

TSH

ADH

 

 

Placenta produces a number of hormones
 

Hormones produced by syncytiotrophoblast

Hormone produced by cytotrophoblast

Protein hormones

a. HCG

b. Human placental lactogen - HPL

c. Human chorionic thyrotropin (HCT)

d. Pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein (psβg)

e. Pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPPA)

It produces hypothalamus like releasing factors:

a. Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH)

b. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)

c. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)

d. Thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH)

Others: Neuropeptide Y.... Williams Obs. 23/e, p 67

Growth factors

a. Inhibin

b. Activin

 

Steroid hormones:

a. Estrogen(estriol, precursors of which come from fetus)

b. Progesterone

 

Others:

a. Relaxin (also secreted by corpus luteum & decidua)

 





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