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Medicine

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Cardiology

Question
6 out of 24
 

Positive hepatojugular reflux is found in conditions except: (AIPG 2009)



A Tricuspid regurgitation
B Right heart failure

C Decreased after load
D PS

Ans. C

Decreased after load

CF of LVF:

1. Dyspnea,

2. Orthopnea,

3. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND),

4. Pink frothy sputum in pulmonary oedema,

5. Wheeze (cardiac 'asthma'),

6. Nocturia,

7. Cool peripheries,

8. Weight loss (Cardiac cachexia)

(Ref. Hari-18th ed., Pg 1905)

9. Muscle wasting.

RVF:

1. Peripheral oedema,

2. Abdominal distension (ascites)

3. Jaundice.

Signs of LVF Cool peripheries, peripheral cyanosis.

Pulse:

1. Resting tachycardia (Earliest feature) Q,

2. Pulsus alternansQ

Auscultation: S3 gallop (Most important) Q, murmurs of mitral or aortic valve disease.

Chest.

1. Tachypnea,

2. Bibasal end- inspiratory crackles,

3. Wheeze ('cardiac asthma'),

4. Pleural effusions.

Signs of RVF:

1. Raised JVP,

2. Edema,

3. Ascites,

4. Hepatomegaly.

Framingham criteria for diagnosis of CHF – (AIIMS Nov. 2008)

(At least one major and two minor or 2 major criteria are required. Q)

Major criteria –

1. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

2. Cardiomegaly

3. Increased venous pressure (> 16cm H2O) h. Positive hepatojugular reflux

4. Raised JVP

5. Acute pulmonary edema

6. Crepitations

7. S3

Minor criteria –

1. Extremity edema

2. Dyspnea on exertion

3. Pleural effusion

4. Tachycardia (≥120/m)

5. Orthopnea (night cough)

6. Hepatomegaly

7. Vital capacity reduced by 1/3 from normal.

Cardiology Flashcard List

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