Central Nervous System
|A||Inability to recognise faces|
|B||Inability to draw|
|C||Inability to count|
|D||Inability to smell|
1. Prosopagnosia Q→the inability to recognize faces due to lesion in the fusiform gyrus on the inferior surface of the right temporal lobe.
2. Acalculia Q→ a-selective impairment of mathematical ability (calculation), due to lesion in the inferior portion of the left frontal lobe.
3. Constructional ApraxiaQ: - Lesions that involves the posterior parietal cortex in the right hemisphere lead to severe difficulties in copying-simple line drawings.
4. Anosmia→inability to smell.
5. Prosopagnosia and visual agnosia:(Ref Harrison 14th/139
a. Prosopagnosia - no difficulty with the generic identification of face as face or of a car as a car, but they cannot recognize the identify of individual face or the make of an individual car.
b. Visual obiectagnosia: when recognition problems become more generalized and extend to the generic identification of common objects, the condition is known as visual object agnosia; the pateint is unable either to name a visually presented object or to describe its use.
c. The charactersticlesions in prosopagnosia and visual object agnosia consists of bilateral infarctions in the territories of the posterior cerebral arteries and involve the lingual and fusiform gyri of occipitotemporal cortex. Q
6. Balint's syndrome: - (Severe spatial disorientation) Q→
a. This syndrome is a combination of :
i. Oculomotor apraxia (deficiet in the orderly visuo-motor scanning of the environment)
ii. Optic ataxia (Deficits in accurate manual reaching towards visual target) and (c) Simultanganosia: - (an inability to integrate visual information in the centre of gaze with more peripheral information for eg - the patient "misses the forest for the trees".
b. Balint's syndrome results from bilateral dorsal parietal lesions Q, common settings include:
i. Water - shed infarction between the middle and posterior cerebral artery territories,
iii. Sagittal sinus thrombosis or
iv. Degenerative disease such as Alzheimer disease.
7. Gerstmann's syndrome: - Q
a. It is a combination of:
i. Acalculia(impairment of simple arithmetic)
ii. Dysgraphia (impaired writing)
iii. Fingeranomia(inability to name individual fingers)
iv. Right Left confusion (an inability to tell whether a hand, foot or arm of the patient a examiner is an right or left side of the body)
b. Cause; - Gerstmann's syndrome is commonly associated with damage to the inferior parietal lobule (=Angular gyrus) in the left hemisphere (Dominant side).