Regarding bone metastases (DNB Dec 2012)
|A||Less than 5% of patients with malignant disease develop bone metastases|
|B||10% of patients with bone metastases develop a pathological fracture|
|C||Breast cancer is the commonest cause of bone metastases in women|
|D||Radiological changes are seen early in the disease process|
|E||Prostate cancer can cause osteosclerotic lesions|
Breast cancer is the commonest cause of bone metastases in women
E. Prostate cancer can cause osteosclerotic lesions
a. Bone metastases occur in 30% of patients with malignant disease.
b. The commonest tumors causing bone metastases are breast (35%), prostate (30%), bronchus (10%), kidney (5%) and thyroid (2%). They usually present with bone pain, a lump. pathological fracture, hypercalcaemia or cord compression.
c. 10% of patients with bone metastases will develop a pathological fracture. Radiological changes usually occur late and bone scintigraphy is the most sensitive investigation available to detect metastatic spread. Most metastases are osteolytic but some tumors, particularly prostate carcinoma, causes osteosclerotic lesions.