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  1. Microscopic examination:
    1. More than 5 red cells per high power field in a centrifuged specimen is abnormal.
    2. Red cell casts indicate glomerular inflammation
    3. Clumping of neutrophils suggests acute pyelonephritis.
    4. Isolated presence of leukocytes does not indicate UTI.
    5. Presence of 2 or more bacteria per oil immersion field in fresh, UN centrifuged urine correlates with a colony count of over 10 thousand organisms /ml. 
  2. Renal biopsy is indicated  if hematuria is associated with
    1. Heavy proteinuria (>3+)
    2. Family history
    3. Evidence of chronic renal disease in the patient
    4. Renal function impairment or hypertension
    5. Children showing persistent microscopic hematuria for 1 or more yrs in the absence of features mentioned above
  3. X-ray
    The length of normal kidney is approximately equal to the total width of first to fourth lumbar vertebrae. 
  4. Radio nucleotide imaging: -
    1. DMSA- Dimercaptosuccinic Acid - attains very high concentration in the renal cortex and provide very high quality images of renal morphology/ Renal Parenchyma.
    2. DTPA—Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic acid - is useful for evaluating perfusion and function of each kidney.

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