Chronic Renal Failure
- In children, CRF may be the result of congenital, acquired, inherited, or metabolic renal disease, and the underlying cause correlates closely with the age of the patient at the time when the CRF is first detected. CRF in children younger than 5 yr is most commonly a result of congenital abnormalities such as renal hypoplasia, dysplasia, and/or obstructive uropathy.
- After 5 yr of age, acquired diseases (various forms of glomerulonephritis) and inherited disorders (familial juvenile nephronophthisis, Alport syndrome) predominate. CRF related to metabolic disorders (cystinosis, hyperoxaluria) and certain inherited disorders (polycystic kidney disease) may present throughout the childhood years.
- Most children with GFR of more than 30 are asymptomatic.
- End renal disease is characterized decline of renal function to a degree when life cannot be sustained without chronic dialysis or renal transplantation. This usually corresponds to GFR of5-10mL/min/1.73 m2
NB: For more details about CRF please see our Medicine Notes in Chapter of Nephrology.