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Paediatric

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Renal System

Question
41 out of 61
 

Renal causes of acute renal failure in children include (AIPG 2012)



A Minimal change disease
B Renal amyloidosis

C Pre-eclampsia
D Malignant hypertension

E Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Ans. E

Ilemolytic uremic syndrome

Acute renal failure

o Acute renal failure (ARF) is a clinical syndrome in which a sudden deterioration in renal function results in the inability of the kidneys to maintain fluid and electrolyte hemostasis.

o ARF has been classified into three categories-

a. Pre-renal ARF, (pre-renal azotemia)

i. Characterized by diminished effective circulatory volume, which leads to inadequate renal perfusion and a decreased GFR.

ii. There is no renal parenchymal damage.

b. Intrinsic renaI ARF

i. Charact erized by renal parenchymal damage, including sustained hypoperfusion / ischemia.

c. Postrenal ARF

i. Characterized by obstruction of urinary tract.

Causes of ARF in children

Pre-renal

Inffinsic renal

Post renal

o Dehydration

o Hemorrhage

o Cardiac failure

o Glomerulonephritis

o Postinfectious/Post streptococcat

o Lupus erythematosus

o Henoch-schonlein purpura

o Membranoproliferative

o Anti-glomerular basement membrance

o Hentoi Wc' ureilde syrurtromi

o Acute tubular necrosis

o Cortical necrosis

o Renal vein thrombosis

o Rhabdomyolysis

o Acute interstitial nephritis

o Tumor infiltration

o Tumor lysis syndrome

o Posterior urethral valve

o Ureteropelvie junction obstruction

o Ureterovesicular junction obstruction

o Ureterocele

o Hemorrhagic cystitis

o Neurogenic bladder

Note - Preeclampsia (option C) and malignant hypertension (option d) cause intrinsic renal ARF in adult & elderly.

Renal System Flashcard List

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