Renal causes of acute renal failure in children include (AIPG 2012)
|A||Minimal change disease|
|E||Hemolytic uremic syndrome|
Ilemolytic uremic syndrome
Acute renal failure
o Acute renal failure (ARF) is a clinical syndrome in which a sudden deterioration in renal function results in the inability of the kidneys to maintain fluid and electrolyte hemostasis.
o ARF has been classified into three categories-
a. Pre-renal ARF, (pre-renal azotemia)
i. Characterized by diminished effective circulatory volume, which leads to inadequate renal perfusion and a decreased GFR.
ii. There is no renal parenchymal damage.
b. Intrinsic renaI ARF
i. Charact erized by renal parenchymal damage, including sustained hypoperfusion / ischemia.
c. Postrenal ARF
i. Characterized by obstruction of urinary tract.
Causes of ARF in children
o Cardiac failure
o Postinfectious/Post streptococcat
o Lupus erythematosus
o Henoch-schonlein purpura
o Anti-glomerular basement membrance
o Hentoi Wc' ureilde syrurtromi
o Acute tubular necrosis
o Cortical necrosis
o Renal vein thrombosis
o Acute interstitial nephritis
o Tumor infiltration
o Tumor lysis syndrome
o Posterior urethral valve
o Ureteropelvie junction obstruction
o Ureterovesicular junction obstruction
o Hemorrhagic cystitis
o Neurogenic bladder
Note - Preeclampsia (option C) and malignant hypertension (option d) cause intrinsic renal ARF in adult & elderly.