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  1. Pathology Chronic infection of the bronchi and bronchioles leading to permanent dilatation of these airways.
  2. Bronchiectasis is commonly affects lower lobe bronchi, the left side being affected more frequently than right. i.e. Left lower lobe bronchi most common involved.
  3. Bronchiectasis is not a premalignant condition 


  1. Congenital:
    1. Young's syndrome Q
    2. Primary ciliary dyskinesia Q 

Kartagener syndrome. Q Triad:

  1. Sinusitis
  2. Bronchiectasis  
  3. Situs inversus

Additional feature: infertility

  1. Post-infection:
    1. Measles
    2. Pertussis
    3. Bronchiolitis
    4. Pneumonia
    5. TB
    6. HIV
      Main organisms:
      1. H. influenzae Q
      2. Strep. pneumoniae Q;  
      3. Staph. aureus Q;  
      4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Q.
  1. Bronchial obstruction (tumour, foreign body)
  2. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (Proximal bronchiectasis)Q
  3. Hypogammaglobulinemia
  4. Rheumatoid arthritis
  5. Ulcerative colitis
  6. Idiopathic.
Extra Edge:

Traction bronchiectasis refers to dilated airways arising from parenchymal distortion as a result of lung fibrosis (e.g., postradiation fibrosis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis). (Ref. Hari-18th ed.,  Pg-2143)



  1. Pneumonia Q,
  2. Pleural effusion Q;
  3. Pneumothorax Q;
  4. Haemoptysis Q;
  5. Cerebral abscess Q;
  6. Amyloidosis.
  7. Lung abscess.
  8. Empyema
Extra Edge Bronchiectasis is not a premalignant condition Q

Important Points: Clinical features Symptoms:

  1. Persistent cough; copious purulent sputum Q, maximum in the morning in a particular posture Q. intermittent hemoptysis Q,
  2. Some times hemoptysis alone may be the presenting feature (Bronchiectasis Sicca Q)
  3. Signs: finger clubbing Q; coarse inspiratory crepitations Q rhonchi.


Important Points: Investigation and treatment



  1. Sputum culture.
  2. CXR: cystic shadows, thickened bronchial walls (Tram Tract appearance and ring shadows Q).
  3. HRCT chest: is the investigation of choice. (Ref. Hari. 18th ed., Pg - 1630)
  4. Spirometry often shows an obstructive pattern.


  1. Postural drainage should be performed twice daily.
  2. Chest physiotherapy may aid sputum expectoration and mucous drainage.
  3. Antibiotic Treatment: Antibiotics targeting the causative or presumptive pathogen (with Haemophilus influenzae and P. aeruginosa isolated commonly) should be administered in acute exacerbations, usually for a minimum of 7–10 days. 
  4. Bronchodilators.
  5. Surgery may be indicated in localized disease or to control severe hemoptysis

In severe cases lung transplantation is done.


Important Points: Causes of Clubbing

  1. Respiratory
    1. Lung abscess                 
    2. Bronchiectasis                 
    3. Empyema thoracis
    4. Cystic fibrosis   
    5. Lung cancer           
    6. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis                           
    7. Asbestosis
  2. Cardiovascular
    1. Cyanotic CHD  
    2. Endocarditis         
    3. Atrial myxoma
  3. GIT
    1. Cirrhosis          
    2. Ulcerative colitis  
    3. Malabsorption syndrome

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