Routine examination of the urine of an asymptomatic pediatric patient showed a positive reaction with Clinitest (a copper reduction method of detecting reducing sugars), but a negative reaction to glucose oxidase test. Which one of the following sugars is least likely to be present (assuming a single elevated saccharide).
a. Clinitest is a nonspecific test that produces a change in color if urine is positive for reducing substances, including reducing sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, xylulose, lactose), amino acids, ascorbic acid, and certain drugs and drug metabolites. Because sucrose is not a reducing sugar, it is not detected by Clinitest.
b. Glucose oxidase method will not detect increased levels of galactose or other sugars in urine.
c. It is therefore important that a copper reduction method be used as a screening test.
d. In those instances when the copper method is positive and the glucose oxidase method is negative, glucosuria is ruled out.
Some other important point, about TCA cycle
a. Co-A contain, vitamin Pantothenic acid, Q
b. The major function of TCA (citric acid cycle) is Q that it act as the final common pathway Q for oxidation of
c. carbohydrate, lipids and proteins.
d. Play a major role in gluconeogenesis, transamination, deamination, lipogenesis.
e. Provide substrate for Respiratory chain
f. Two Co molecules are released to regenerate oxalo-acetate; oxalo acetate may be considered to play a
g. catalytic site.
h. Aconitase contains fe++ (ferrous) state in the form of an Fe-S proteins
i. 7. The enzymes of TCA cycle, except for the a-keto-glutrate deHase and succinate deHase, are also found outside the mitochondria.
j. Since TCA cycle concerns the processes of gluconeogenesis, transamination, deamination and fatty acid synthesis, therefore TCA cycle plays roles in both oxidative and synthetic processes, that is why, known as Amphibolic pathways.