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Introduction to Schizophrenia and Other Psychosis

 

Psychosis is classically defined as presence of Delusions, Hallucinations, disorganized Behavior and Loss in touch with reality, in clear sensorium.
 
On the basis of type of delusions, hallucinations and the duration, the psychotic illnesses can be broadly categorized into
  1. Schizophrenia
  2. Persistent delusional Disorder
  3. Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorders
  4. Schizo-affective Disorder.
Schizophrenia:-
Emil Kraepelin coined term “Dementia precox”
He Classified psychosis, for 1st time in the world, into
  1. MDP (Manic depressive psychosis)
  2. Dementia precox
Eugen Bleuler coined the term schizophrenia and given 4A’s of schizophrenia
- Autism
- Ambivalence (not able to decide for on against)
- Affective blunting
- Associational loosening
 
Automatism is not part of schizophrenia
Currently symptoms of schizophrenia has been categorized into positive, negative and cognitive symptoms.
 
Positive Symptoms Negative Symptoms Cognitive Symptoms
Hallucination
Delusion               
Violence               
Amotivation
Asociality
Alogia (absence of language)
Affective blunting
Attentional deficit
Lack of executive memory/ functioning

T. J. Crow in 1980 classified schizophrenia
 
 Type I Type II
- Acute onset
- Precipitating event
- Positive symptom
- No family history
- Emotions are preserved
- No CT/MRI finding
- Good prognosis                               
- Insidious onset
- No precipitating Tactor
- Negative symptom
- Family history present
- Emotions gone
- Some CT/MRI finding
- Poor prognosis




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