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Binocular Vision

Defined as that state of simultaneous vision with two seeing eyes
Visual refer : 6 months
Binocular vision : 6 yrs.
  1. Grades
  1. Grade I- Simultaneous macular perception (SMP)
  2. Grade II- Fusion
  3. Grade III- Stereopsis
  1. Visual reflex ( fixation) in infant starts developing at < 1 month of age and develops fully tills 6 months of age
  2.  Binocular function fully develops by 6 yrs and orthoptic exercises are most useful till 10 yrs of age
  3. Horopter*- it is the sum total of points in physical space, that stimulate corresponding retinal elements of the two eyes
  4. Panum’s area*- The field in front of and behind the horopter in which the expected diplopia does not occur is known as “ Panum’s fusional space”

Anterior posterior stability of eye ball is maintain by all except? (AIIMS May 09)
A. Superior rectus                              
B. Superior oblique            
C. Orbital Fat                        
D. Suspensory ligament of the eye  


Ans. B.  Superior Oblique

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