Oncology and Fibroids
The PAP smear is used largely for: (LQ)
|A||For diagnosing HPV infections|
|B||For screening carcinoma cervix|
|C||For identifying vaginal cells|
|D||Staging of carcinoma cervix|
For screening carcinoma cervix
1. Papanicolaou cytological diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1943.
2. The material for cytological examination may be obtained in 2 ways.
a. The first method is to make a vaginal smear from posterior fornix and the second method is to make a smear directly from the cervix.
b. If carcinoma cells are subsequently found in a smear, the area of the cervix to be submitted to biopsy may be defined more accurately with the help of colposcopy.
c. The accuracy of smear reports for carcinoma of cervix varies from 95% to 100%.
d. The purpose of this technique is to screen large numbers of i, women in order that carcinoma of cervix and uterus may be diagnosed early.
b. Preinvasive lesions of the cervix (also known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) and invasive carcinoma of the cervix can be detected reliably by obtaining a Papanicolaou smear (Pap smear). Pap smear detects only 40 percent of cases qt endometrial adenocarcinoma.