The common cause of arterio-venous fistula is:
|C||Neoplastic invasion of an artery and adjacent vein|
|D||Aneurysm of the artery eroding a vein|
a. The most common cause of arterio venous fistula even now is penetrating trauma to extremities resulting in communication between the artery and vein resulting in development of a fistula.
b. However due to increasing cases of chronic renal disease and the need for haemodialysis in such patients, the number of iatrogenic fistula for dialysis purpose is on significant rise and may replace penetrating injury as primary cause subsequently.
c. The fistula most frequently used, the standard by which all other fistulas are measured, is the Brescia-Cimino fistula.