The metabolite adaptation in alcoholics are the following except
|B||High NAD level|
|C||Accumulation of fat in the liver|
|E||Decreased excretion of uric acid|
a. Alcoholism — Leads to fat accumulation in the liver fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, and ultimately cirrhosis
b. Ethanol, consumption over a long period leads to the accumulation of fatty acids in the liver that are derived from endogenous synthesis rather than from adipose tissue. There is no impairment of hepatic synthesis of protein after ethanol ingestion.
- The increased [NADH/NAD+] ratio causes a shift to the left in the equilibrium malateoxaloacetate.
The net effect
- ↓ activity of citric acid cycle
2. ↓β-oxidation of fatty acid →↑ed esterification of ↑TG →fatty liver
- b ↑ed [ NADH/NAD] ratio →
1. Causes ↑ed[ ratio, result in Hyper-lacticacidemia lactic acidosis.
2. Decrease the uric acid excretion by kidney. Hyperuricemia.