The most recent advance in non invasive cardiac output monitoring is use of:
|A||P A catheter|
|D||Electrical impedance cardiograph technology|
Electrical Impedance Cardiograph Technology
Impedance plethysmography has recently been utilized as an excellent non invasive method for cardiac output monitoring (echocardiography also measures cardiac output by non invasive method). PA catheter and thermodilution are invasive methods.