This organism may cause epidemics of puerperal sepsis. (AIIMS May 2011)
|B||Group A β-hemolytic streptococci|
Group A β-hemolytic streptococci
a. Group A β-hemolytic streptococci can cause puerperal or postoperative pelvic infection.
b. Outbreaks of puerperal fever are still reported on obstetric services, though not at anywhere near the frequency of 50 years ago.
c. When the disease does occur, a point source among the hospital personnel should be suspected.
d. Group B β-hemolytic streptococci, which can also cause puerperal fever, have recently been recognized as a major cause of severe neonatal infection.
e. The organism can be isolated from the cervixes of about 5% of all pregnant women; infection of the infant, which can result in sepsis, occurs as the infant passes through the vagina. T gondii, a protozoan parasite, is transmitted by flies from cat feces to human food.
f. Thus, humans can become infected by consuming infected meat that is inadequately cooked or by coming in direct contact with feces of an infected cat.
g. Acute toxoplasmosis in a pregnant woman may cause a fulminant fetal infection; infected neonates may be born with microcephaly, intracranial calcification, or other symptoms.
h. An effective attenuated virus vaccine is available for immunization against rubella.
i. However, its use is generally contraindicated for pregnant women and commonly is associated with development of arthralgia in adults.
j. Rubella syndrome has not been seen in fetuses when mothers are vaccinated, and vaccination can be considered if a pregnant woman is exposed to the virus.