Trachea is 10-15 cm long tube formed by C-Shaped hyaline cartilaginous rings andfibromuscular membrane. It extends from lower border of cricoid cartilage (at C6level) to lower border of T4or up border of T5 vertebra (T4 - T5 disc space) where it bifurcates. Its external diameter is about 2cm in males and about 1.5 cm in females. It has 16-20 cartilaginous rings. First tracheal ring is broadest. Last ring at tracheal bifurcation shows carina, a triangular hoop-shaped process separating the bronchi i.e. Carina is bifurcation of trachea.
Trachea is lined by ciliated columnar epithelium.It is supplied by inferior thyroid artery and is drain by left brachiocephalic vein.
Sensory and motor supply to trachea is provided by parasympathetic system through vagiand recurrent laryngeal nerve. Vasomotor supply is by sympathetic fibres through middle cervical ganglion along inferior thyroid arteries.
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