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Pathology

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Miscellaneous

Question
5 out of 28
 

Transitional cell carcinomas can be caused by all except: (AIIMS May 2014)



A Naphthylamine
B Smoking

C Bilharziasis
D Betel-nut

Ans. D Betel-nut

a. Carcinoma bladder

i. 90% are transitional cell carcinoma (MC superficial type)

ii. Others are: Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

iii. M.C site is trigone and posterolateral wall

iv. Males are affected more than females

v. 50% of blader carcinomas are high grade lesions, mostly arise from lateral or posterior walls of the base of the urinary bladder.

b. Etiology: Betanaphythalamine

i. Smoking

ii. Analgesic nephropathy (transitional)

iii. Cyclophosphamide

iv. Schistosoma hematobium (Squamous type)

v. Urachas remnant (adenocarcinoma)

vi. 70% transitional cell carcinoma are papillary and noninvasive

c. Squamous cell carcinoma arise after metaplasia and are infiltrative and ulcerative with anaplastic giant cells

d. M.C symptom is painless hematuria

e. Transitional cell CA have tendency of recurrence

f. M.C. lymph node involved is obturator and internal iliac

g. Transitional cell cancer have better prognosis than squamous type

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