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6 out of 6

True about GAE is?

A Caused by acanthamoeba

B Diagnoses by brain biopsy

C Despite treatment, Usually fatal

D All of the above

Ans. D

All of the above

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis

1). Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis ("GAE") is a central nervous system disease caused by certain species, especially species of Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris.

2). Clinical Features

a. GAE can present with: focal paralysis, seizures, brainstem symptoms, and other neurological problems, some of which may mimic glioma (especially brainstem glioma), or other brain diseases, which may hamper timely diagnosis.

b. These symptoms are caused by inflammatory necrosis of brain tissue brought on by amoebic infiltrates.

3). Appearance on Biopsy

a. A brain biopsy will reveal the presence of infection by pathogenic amoebas.

b. In GAE, these present as general inflammation and sparse granules.

c. On microscopic examination, infiltrates of amoebic cysts and/or trophozoites will be visible.

4). Treatment

Even with treatment, the condition is often fatal