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Physiology

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Endocrinology

Question
19 out of 19
 

True about Growth Hormone is that



A It prevents diabetes mellitus resistant to insulin

B Causes hyperglycemia

C Enhanceslipogenesis

D Causes hypoglycemia

Ans. B Causes hyperglycemia

1. Growth hormone for GH. orsomatotropin (STH)l: - .

i. Secreted by the Anteriar pituitary (samatatrape, acidaphilic cells, that cansistute 50% cells af pituitary gland)

ii. The effect of GH on growth, cartilage, and protein metabolism depends on an interaction between GH and somato-medins.

iii. Somatamedins are polypeptide growth factar secreted by liver and other tissues. The principal circulating somatomedins are IGF-I (or somatomedin-C) and IGF-ll

iv. Function of the GH: ­

  1. Functianaf GH via IGF-I (samatamedian C): ­ Q

i. Insulin-like activity

ii. Anti-lipolytic activity

iii. Protein synthesis (Anabolic)

iv. Epiphysial growth

v. Chiefly growth of the tissues of the body except brain

  1. Direct functiansaf GH (independent af IGF-I) Q

i. On glucasemetabalism: ­

1) Diabetogenic

2) Anti-insulin action

3) Tends to. increase Blood sugar.

4) Prevents peripheral utilizatianaf sugar

ii. On fat metabolism: - over all - catabolic ~

1) lipolysis ~ increase FFA

2) ketogenesis, cholesterol level falls

iii. On Protein metabolism: ­

1) Anabalic

2) Increase Protein synthesis

3) Positive Nitrogen balance and positive phosphorus balance.

iv. On Electrolvtes:­

1) Na+ and K+ excretion reduced (=Na+ retention)

2) Excretion of the amino acid 4-hydroxyproline is increased

3) Increased Ca2+ absorption from GIT (Chaudhary).

  1. Clinical Aspects of GH: ­

i. Deficiency of GHDrawfism

ii. Excess of GH before 18yr. ("before closure af epiphysis) Gigantism Q

iii. Excess of GH after 18 yrsAcromegaly Q

iv. Laron Dwarfism Q or Growth Hormone insensitivity:GH level normal or reduced. There are exceptionally low levels of insulin growth factor (IGF-1) and its principal carrier protein, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. This deficiency in IGF-1 is believed to provide the Laron's Dwarf with a full immunity to cancer

2. Insulin-Resistant states (DM) (when 200 or > units of Insulin required per day to contral Hyper-glycemia and prevent ketosis) are: ­

  1. Prereceptor resistance: ­

i. Mutated insulin

ii. Anti-insulin antibodies

  1. Receptor and Postreceptor resistance: ­

i. Obesity (M.C. cause of Insulin resistance and is associated with decreased Receptor number, but major problem at the post receptor)

ii. Type A syndrome (absent or dysfunctional Receptor)

iii. Type B syndrome (Antibody to insulin receptor).

iv. Lipodystrophic states

v. Leprechaunism

vi. Ataxis-telangiectasia

vii. Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome

viii. Werner syndrome

ix. Alstrom syndrome

x. Pineal Hyperplasia syndrome

  1. Other causes:

i. Acromegaly ( GH) ,Cushing's syndrome , Myotonic dystrophy and Thalassemia major

Endocrinology Flashcard List

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