Physiological Changes in Pregnancy
True regarding progesterone true is (LQ)
|A||Produced exclusively by the corpus luteum|
|B||It has catabolic effects|
|C||It stimulates lactation|
|D||all of the above|
It has catabolic effects
a. Progesterone is produced in the ovaries (by the corpus luteum), the adrenal glands (near the kidney), and, during pregnancy, in the placenta.
b. Progesterone is also stored in adipose (fat) tissue.Progesterone has effects on several cell types, takes on additional roles during pregnancy, and often interacts with (and depends on)other hormones, notably estrogen, to produce responses.
c. As a result, any answer about the effect of progesterone depends on the particular tissue type, reproductive status, and concentrations of other hormones present.
d. As an example, in the endometrium, the cells lining the uterus, progesterone is well established in its role for causing growth and development if preparation for implantation.
e. This would be categorized as an anabolic response.
f. In contrast, in the body more generally progesterone causes a thermogenic (heat generating) response through a rise in metabolic rate, which would increase catabolism. Progesterone—influences the growth in size of alveoli and lobes, high levels of progesterone inhibit lactation before birth.
g. Progesterone levels drop after birth, this triggers the onset of copious milk production. Estrogen—stimulates the milk duct system to grow and differentiate.
h. Like progesterone high levels of estrogen also inhibit lactation. Estrogen levels also drop at delivery and remain low for the first several months of breastfeeding.
i. It is recommended that breastfeeding mothers avoid estrogen-based birth control methods, as a spike in estrogen levels may reduce a mother's milk supply.