Amino Acids, Proteins and Porphyrins
Trypsin can be activated by which of the following?(AIPG 2008)
a. Trypsin is a proteinase.
b. It can hydrolyze a peptide bond formed by the carbonyl group of a lysine residue on trypsinogen, converting the latter to trypsin and inactive Hexa peptide.
c. It can be activated (i.e., trypsinogen converted to trypsin)by enterokinase
d. The powerful protein-splitting enzymes of the pancreatic juice are secreted as inactive proenzymes.
e. Trypsinogen is converted to the active enzyme trypsin by the brush border enzyme enteropeptidase (enterokinase)when the pancreatic juice enters the duodenum.
a. Enteropeptidase contains 41 %polysaccharide, and this high polysaccharide content apparently prevents it from being digested itself before it can exert its effect.
Type of LP Lipids Risk of Treatment disorder increased elevated atherosclerosis
I CM +++ N No None
IIa LDL N +++++ Statins
IIb VLDL and LDL +++++++ Statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid
III IDL and CMR ++++++ Fibrates
IV VLDL ++N ++ Fibrates, nicotinic acid
a. V VLDL and CM ++N No None
b. Trypsin converts chymotrypsinogen into chymotrypsin’s and other pro enzymes into active enzymes.
c. Trypsin can also activate trypsinogen; therefore, once some trypsin is formed, there is an autocatalytic chain reaction.
d. Enteropeptidase deficiency occurs as a congenital abnormality and leads to protein malnutrition.
e. Alpha -I Anti trypsin is the principal serine protease inhibitor of human plasma. It inhibits trypsin, elastase and certain other proteases forming complexes with them.
f. Alpha-I-anti proteinase is the new name for alpha – I Anti trypsin
g. Enterokinase activates trypsinogen into trypsin in the presence of Calcium
h. Egg-white is a trypsin inhibitor
i. Other trypsin inhibitors are:
a. Human and bovin Colostrum
b. Raw Soybeans
c. DFP (Di Iso propyl fluoro phosphate)