Upper limb thrombophlebitis is commonly caused by
|A||Infusing hypotonic solution|
|B||Infusing hypertonic solution|
|C||Giving hypertonic solution intramuscularly|
|D||Infusing normal saline|
a. Hypertonic saline (NS) — 7% NaCl solutions are considered mucoactive agents and as such are used to hydrate thick secretions (mucous) in order to make it easier to cough up and out (expectorate). 3% hypertonic saline solutions are also used in critical care settings to help in haemorrhagic shock (but no other type of shock), acutely increased intracranial pressure, or severe hyponatremia.
b. Inhalation of hypertonic saline has also been shown to help in other respiratory problems, specifically bronchiolitis.
Use of hypertonic solutions like 3% saline and dextrose are known to cause thrombophlebitis.