Urinary bladder wall calcification occurs in: (LQ)
a. Dead parasites like in hydatid cyst, schistosoma eggs, and cysticercosis are some of the examples showing dystrophic calcification.
b. Congenital toxoplasmosis involving CNS associated with calcification.
c. Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) is caused by schistosoma.
d. Three species of schistosoma are:
i. S. haematobium ii. S. mansoni iii. S. japonicum.
e. Schistosomiasis haematobium: Humans are the only natural host of S haematobium. Cercaria penetrate through the skin or mucus membrane.
i. Painless terminal haematuria ii. Frequency of micturition (due to bladder neck obstruction)
iii. Ureteric stone formation iv. Hydronephrosis
v. Renal function impaired vi. Ultimately renal failure with a contracted calcified bladder.