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Biochemistry

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Vitamins, Harmones and Hemoglobin

Question
15 out of 30
 

Vitamin K carboxylates: (AIPG 2011)



A Aspartate
B Glutamate

C Tyrosine
D Tryptophan

Ans. B Glutamate

(Ref. Harper’s 28th/ pg. 473)Vitamin K carboxylates Glutamate.

a. Vitamin K Is the Coenzyme for Carboxylation of Glutamate in Postsynthetic Modification of Calcium Binding Proteins.

b. Vitamin K Is Also Important in Synthesis of Bone Calcium-Binding Proteins.

c. Vitamin K Is Required For Synsthesis Of Blood Clotting Proteins [II, VII, IX, and X].

d. A high dose of vitamin K is the antidote to an overdose of warfarin.

VITAMINS

Vitamin

Chemical name

Functions

Deficiency disease

A

Retinol, carotene

Visual pigments in the retina; regulation of gene expression and cell differentiation (-carotene is an antioxidant)

Night blindness, xerophthalmia; keratinization of skin

D

Calciferol

Maintenance of calcium balance; enhances intestinal absorption of Ca2+ and mobilizes bone mineral; regulation of gene expression and cell differentiation

Rickets = poor mineralization of bone; osteomalacia = bone demineralization

E

Tocopherols, tocotrienols

Antioxidant, especially in cell membranes; roles in cell signaling

Extremely rare-serious neurologic dysfunction

K

Phylloquinone: menaquinones

Coenzyme in formation of -carboxyglutamate in enzymes of blood clotting and bone matrix

Impaired blood clotting, hemorrhagic disease

B1

Thiamin

Coenzyme in pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenases, and transketolase; regulates Cl- channel in nerve conduction

Peripheral nerve damage (beriberi) or central nervous system lesions (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome)

B2

Riboflavin

Coenzyme in oxidation and reduction reactions; prosthetic group of flavoproteins

Lesions of corner of mouth, lips, and tongue, seborrheic dermatitis

Niacin

Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide

Coenzyme in oxidation and reduction reactions, functional part of NAD and NADP; role in intracellular calcium regulation and cell signaling

Pellagra, photosensitive dermatitis, depressive psychosis

B6

Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine

Coenzyme in transamination and decarboxylation of amino acids and glycogen phosphorylase; modulation of steroid hormone action

Disorders of amino acid metabolism, convulsions

Folic acid

Coenzyme in transfer of one-carbon fragments

Megaloblastic anemia

B12

Cobalamin

Coenzyme in transfer of one-carbon fragments and metabolism of folic acid

Pernicious anemia = megaloblastic anemia with degeneration of the spinal cord

Pantothenic acid

Functional part of CoA and acyl carrier protein: fatty acid synthesis and metabolism

Peripheral nerve damage (nutritional melalgia or "burning foot syndrome")

H

Biotin

Coenzyme in carboxylation reactions in gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis; role in regulation of cell cycle

Impaired fat and carbohydrate metabolism, dermatitis

C

Ascorbic acid

Coenzyme in hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis; antioxidant; enhances absorption of iron

Scurvy; impaired wound healing, loss of dental cement, subcutaneous hemorrhage

Vitamins, Harmones and Hemoglobin Flashcard List

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