Which of the following is Cardio-protective? (AIPG 2011)
|B||Omega3 fatty acid|
(Ref. Harper Biochmeistry 28th/pg. 618; H-17th/pg. 2429)
Omega3 fatty acid is Cardio-protective.
a. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are present in high concentration in fish and in flax seeds.
b. The most widely used n-3 PUFAs for the treatment of hyperlipidemias are the two active molecules in fish oil:
i. Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)Q
ii. Decohexanoic acid (DHA).Q
c. N-3 PUFAs have been concentrated into tablets and decrease fasting triglycerides in doses of 3–4 g/d.Q
d. Omega-3 fatty acid preparations that include high doses of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (~3.0–4.5 g daily) lower fasting triglycerides by ~40%.
e. Fish oils can result in an increase in plasma LDL-C levels in some patients.
f. Fish oil supplements can be used in combination with fibrates, niacin, or statins to treat hypertriglyceridemia.
g. In general, fish oils are well tolerated and appear to be safe, at least at doses up to 3–4 g.
h. Although fish oil administration is associated with a prolongation in the bleeding time, no increase in bleeding has been seen in clinical trials.
i. Substituting omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid found in certain fish oils for dietary omega-6 essential fatty acids found in meat has also been shown to provide symptomatic improvement in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis.Q
j. A lower dose of omega 3 (about 1 g) has been associated with reduction in cardiovascular events in CHD patients.Q
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA, PUFAs)
a. A polyunsaturated fatty acid is one that is missing more than one pair of hydrogen atoms.
b. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are mostly found in plant and sea foods.
c. Safflower, sunflower, corn and soybean oils are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.
d. The highest percentage of essential fatty acid is found in safflower oil (73%) and in cornflower oil (57%).