Which of the following is nephrotoxic?
Common properties of aminoglycoside antibiotics
a. All are used as sulfate salts, which are highly water soluble; solutions are stable for months.
b. They ionize in solution; are not absorbed orally; distribute only extracellularly; do not penetrate brain or CSF.
c. All are excreted unchanged in urine by glomerular filtration.
d. All are bactericidal and more active at alkaline pH. They act by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis.
e. All are active primarily against aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and do not inhibit anaerobes.
f. There is only partial cross resistance among them.
g. They have relatively narrow margin of safety.
h. All exhibit ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.