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Physiology

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Respiration

Question
21 out of 33
 

Which of the following is false regarding respiratory failure type-I? (LQ)



A Normal A-a gradient
B Normal PaCO2

C Decreased PaCO2
D Decreased PaO2

Ans. A Normal A-a gradient

Types of Respiratory Failure Q

Type PaO2 PaCO2 PA-aO2

I Low Normal or low High

II Low High Normal

III Low High High

I. Respiratory failure is the ‘primary’ indication for initiation of mechanical ventilation Q.

II. Hypoxemic respiratory failure Q1) is defined as a PaO2 less than 60 mmHg with fraction of oxygen in inspired air (FiO2 greater than 0. 6 (in the absence of cyanotic heart disease Q), and hypercarbic respiratory failure (type 2) is defined as an acute PaCO2 Greater than 50 mmHg Q.

III. Hypoxemic respiratory failure most commonly results from pulmonary conditions such as severe pneumonia, pulmonary edema pulmonary hemorrhage and RDS causing ventilation perfusion mismatch and shunt.

IV. Hypoxemic respiratory failure is present when arterial oxygen saturations of less than 90 % are observed despite an inspired oxygen fraction of greater than 0. 6.

V. The goal of ventilator treatment in this setting is to provide adequate arterial oxygen saturation.

VI. Hypercarbic respiratory failure results from disease states causing either a decrease in minute ventilation or an increase in physiologic dead space.

VII. Common conditions associated with hypercarbic respiratory failure include ‘neuromuscular-diseases’, such as myasthenia gravis, ascending polyradiculopathy, and myopathies, as well as diseases that cause respiratory muscle fatigue due to increased workload, such as bronchial asthma, COPD, and restrictive lung disease.

VIII. Acute hypercarbic respiratory failure is present when arterial PaCO2 values exceed 50 mmHg and the arterial pH is below 7. 30.

Chronic hypercarbic respiratory failure is characterized by arterial PaCO2 values of greater than 50 mmHg and an arterial pH above 7. 30.

Respiration Flashcard List

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