Which of the following is a proinflammatory mediator of shock:
|A||Interleukin - 4|
|B||Interleukin – 6|
|C||Interleukin – 10|
|D||Interleukin – 13|
IL – 1 α / β IL – 4
IL – 2 IL – 10
IL – 6 IL – 13
IL – 8 IL – Ira
a. Bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins both stimulate proinflammatory mediators but the contribution of each individual toxin in the release of mediators causing lethal shock is incompletely understood.
b. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB. or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lead to the shock.
c. SEB alone induced moderate levels of IL-2 and MCP-1
d. LPS induces high levels of IL-6 and MCP-1.
e. Bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins are among the most common etiological agents that cause septic shock .
f. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB. and structurally related exotoxins are bacterial superantigens that potently activate antigen-presenting cells by binding directly to major histocompatibility complex (MHC. class II molecules .
g. These exotoxins also interact with specific Vβ regions of the T cell antigen receptors resulting in polyclonal T cell activation .
h. Interactions of superantigens with antigen-presenting cells and T cells lead to massive proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release, causing clinical symptoms that include fever, hypotension, and shock .
i. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria binds to a different receptor on monocytes/macrophages.
j. An LPS-binding protein in serum first binds to LPS and facilitates its binding to cell surface protein CD14 on monocytes/macrophages and other cells .
k. The subsequent interaction of LPS/CD14 complex with Toll-like receptor 4 on these cells initiates recruitment of intracellular adaptors and downstream signaling pathways activating NFκB and results in hyperproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines .