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Thyroid & Adrenal

Question
72 out of 99
 

Which of the following is false?



A Raccoon’s eye is due to subgaleal hemorrhage

B Brain injury is more common after open skull fracture

C Post traumatic epilepsy is seen in 15% cases after cortical injury

D Caverna cortical fistula occurs in base of skull fracture.

Ans. A Raccoon’s eye is due to subgaleal hemorrhage (REF. SCHWARTZ SURGERY 8TH ED)

a. Though traumatic brain injury does not always involve a fractured skull, the term "open head injury" is used when the affected individual's skull is penetrated by an object, such as a bullet or bone fragment.

b. This differs from a "closed brain injury", which involves a non-invasive blow to the head through sports, a car accident, or another incident.

c. The term "open head injury" actually refers to the condition of the skull rather than that of the brain; there are different grades of severity in traumatic brain injury of both the open and closed varieties.

d. Open head injury is usually diagnosed with the help of x-rays or other technology such as CATscans. .
Side Effects of Open Head Injury

e. When the skull is broken, the delicate tissues of the brain are exposed to further harm in the form of infections or further injury during other blows.

f. In addition, bone fragments remaining from a traumatic brain injury such as a fall or car accident can move around and injure the brain after the initial traumatic event.

g. While a fracture in the skull can actually give the brain room to swell without negatively impacting the brain, the brain is at risk for infections in exposed tissue.

h. In addition, an open head injury can lead to more severe side effects such as seizures, dementia or even paralysis

i. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for 20% of symptomatic epilepsy in the general population and 5% of all epilepsy.

j. Carotid-cavernous fistula can be classified into traumatic and spontaneous types. The traumatic type is caused by severe head injury after high velocity traffic accident, major skull base fracture or penetrating wound through the orbit.

k. The spontaneous type can be congenital, secondary to rupture of carotid aneurysm into the cavernous sinus or acquired with multiple arterial branches of the carotid arteries that shunt into the cavernous sinus. The later type is the commonest and is usually called dural CCF.

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