Which of the following neoplasms has been associated with the use of oral contraceptives?
a. Beginning with high- dose combination contraceptive pills used over 20 years ago, pills have been studied extensively for a possible association with neoplasia.
b. There is only scant evidence from this experience that use of oral contraceptives increases the risk of any type of cancer.
c. Actually, the progestational component of combination pills (or progestin-only minipills) may confer a protective effect against ca endometrium, and avoiding ovulation may decrease the risk of developing ovarian carcinoma.
d. A slightly higher risk of cervical carcinoma was observed in some studies of users of oral contraceptives.
e. These studies were not controlled, however, for confounding variables such as multiple partners or age at onset of sexual intercourse, and it is generally believed now that any increased risk in contraceptive pill users would be attributable to these other factors and not the steroids themselves risk of developing benign liver adenomas is increased somewhat in users of oral contraceptives, the risk of hepatic carcinoma is not increased.