Which of the following terms best describes the presence of agent in the environment but no disease transmission taking place
Understand the CONCEPTS OF CONTROL
Disease control –
- In disease control, the disease "agent" is permitted to persist in the community at a level where it ceases to be a public health problem according to the tolerance of the local population. A state of equilibrium becomes established between the disease agent, host and environment components of the disease process. An excellent embodiment of this concept is malaria control, which is distinct from malaria eradication.
- The term "disease control" describes (ongoing) operations aimed at reducing:
i. the incidence of disease
ii. the duration of disease, and consequently the risk of transmission
iii. the effects of infection, including both the physical and psychosocial complications; and
iv. the financial burden to the community.
- Control activities may focus on primary prevention or secondary prevention, most control programmes combine the two. The concept of tertiary prevention is comparatively less relevant to control efforts.
Disease elimination –
- Between control and eradication, an intermediate goal has been described, called "regional elimination". The term "elimination" is used to describe interruption of transmission of disease, as for example, elimination of measles, polio and diphtheria from large geographic regions or areas. Regional elimination is now seen as an important precursor of eradication.
Disease eradication –
- Eradication literally means to "tear out by roots". Eradication of disease implies termination of all transmission of infection by extermination of the infectious agent. As the name implies, eradication is an absolute process, and not a relative goal. It is "all or none phenomenon". The word eradication is reserved to cessation of infection and disease from the whole world.
- Today, smallpox is the only disease that has been eradicated. So far no strategy for global eradication of any other disease has been developed and none is in sight. Every disease like every human being is unique with its own epidemiological characteristics and specific strategies for control.
During recent years, three diseases have been seriously advanced as candidates for global eradication within the foreseeable future: polio, measles and dracunculiasis. The feasibility of eradicating polio appears to be greater than that of others.