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Surgery

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Mediastinum

Question
6 out of 28
 

Which of the following biopsy findings has the great­est relative risk for later carcinoma?



A Apocrine metaplasia

B Atypical lobular hyperplasia

C Ductal ectasia

D Intraductal papilloma ­

Ans. B Atypical lobular hyperplasia REF. SCHWARTZ SURGERY 8TH EDN PG 458-465

Assessment of cancer risks:

  1. Some pathologic features are associated with increased cancer risk.
    1. No increased risk is associated with adenosis, cysts, duct ectasia, or apocrine metaplasia.
    2. There is a slightly increased risk with moderate or florid hyperplasia, papillomatosis, and complex fibroadenomas.
    3. Atypical ductal (ADH) or lobular hyperplasia (ALH) carries a 4- to 5-fold increased risk of developing cancer; the risk increases to 10-fold if there is a positive family history. Patients with increased risk should be counseled appropriately and should be followed with semiannual physical examinations and yearly mammograms.

Mediastinum Flashcard List

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