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Biochemistry

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Amino Acids, Proteins and Porphyrins

Question
19 out of 36
 

Which of these is a mitochondrial enzyme? (AIPG 2010)



A SGPT
B SGOT

C GGT
D ALP

Ans. B SGOT that is AST

Refer to this review article “A review on laboratory liver function tests by ShivarajGowda et al”

Mitochondrial enzymes and transporters

Outer membrane

fatty acid degradation (Carnitinepalmitoyltransferase I, Long fatty acyl CoA synthetase) tryptophan metabolism (Kynureninase) monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism (Monoamine oxidase)

Intermembrane space

Adenylate kinase - Creatine kinase

Inner membrane

oxidative phosphorylation (Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase, Cytochrome c, NADH dehydrogenase, Succinate dehydrogenase) pyrimidine metabolism (Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase)

mitochondrial shuttle (Malate-aspartate shuttle, Glycerol phosphate shuttle)

other (Glutamate aspartate transporter, Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, Carnitinepalmitoyltransferase II, Uncoupling protein)

Matrix

citric acid cycle (Citrate synthase, Aconitase, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase, Fumarase, Malate dehydrogenase)

anaplerotic reactions (Aspartate transaminase, Glutamate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex)

urea cycle (Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I, Ornithine transcarbamylase, N-Acetylglutamate synthase)

alcohol metabolism (ALDH2)

Other/to be sorted

steroidogenesis (Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase, Aldosterone synthase)

Mitochondrial DNA

Complex I (MT-ND1, MT-ND2, MT-ND3, MT-ND4, MT-ND4L, MT-ND5, MT-ND6) - Complex III (MT-CYB) - Complex IV (MT-CO1, MT-CO2,MT-CO3)

ATP synthase (MT-ATP6, MT-ATP8)

tRNA (MT-TA, MT-TC, MT-TD, MT-TE, MT-TF, MT-TG, MT-TH, MT-TI, MT-TK, MT-TL1, MT-TL2, MT-TM, MT-TN, MT-TP, MT-TQ, MT-TR,MT-TS1, MT-TS2, MT-TT, MT-TV, MT-TW, MT-TY)

Aspartate amino transferase (AST)

a. AST catalyse transamination reaction. AST exist two different isoenzyme forms which are genetically distinct, the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic form. AST is found in highest concentration in heart compared with other tissues of the body such as liver, skeletal muscle and kidney.

b. Normal serum AST is 0 to 35U/L. Elevated mitochondrial AST is seen in extensive tissue necrosis during myocardial infarction and in chronic liver diseases like liver tissue degeneration and necrosis.

c. About 80% of AST activity of the liver is contributed by the mitochondrial isoenzyme, whereas most of the circulating AST activity in normal people is derived from the cytosolic isoenzyme.

d. However the ratio of mitochondrial AST to total AST activity has diagnostic importance in identifying the liver cell necrotic type condition and alcoholic hepatitis.

e. AST elevations often predominate in patients with cirrhosis and even in liver diseases that typically have an increased ALT.

f. AST levels in symptomatic pregnant patient in hyperemesis gravidarum were 73U/L, in pre-eclampsia 66U/L, and 81U/L was observed in hemolysis with low platelet count and elevated liver enzymes.

Amino Acids, Proteins and Porphyrins Flashcard List

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