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Radar

Radar stands for radio detection and ranging. Radar employs a transmit and receive system to detect and locate a distant object. The radar transmits an electromagnetic wave toward the target which is reflected by the target and received by the radar.
 
Depending upon the positions of transmitter and receiver, a radar may be of two types:
  1. Monostatic Radar: Here, the transmitter and receiver are located in the same position.
  2. Bistatic Radar: Here, the transmitter and receiver are positioned at separate locations.
Figure: shows a monostatic radar system.
 

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Monostatic radar system
 
The basic principle of operation of a radar system is that electromagnetic energy pulses are transmitted from a transmitting antenna to a distant object (called target) and the reflected pulses are received by a receiving antenna. By measuring the time interval between the transmitted pulse and received pulses, the distance of the target can be determined.
 
If
 
r is the distance of target
c is the speed of light
 is the time interval between the transmitted pulse and received pulses
 
then,
 
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