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Types of Antennas

Antennas can be classified from different points of view. A classification is given here.
  1. According to Frequency and Size
    Antennas used for High Frequencies (HF) are different from ones used for Very High Frequencies (VHF), which in turn are different from antennas for microwaves. The wavelength is different at different frequencies, so the antennas must be different in size to radiate signals at the correct wavelength.
  2. According to Directivity
    According to directivity, antennas can be of three types:​
    1. Omnidirectional Antennas Omnidirectional antennas radiate energy equally well in all directions around the antenna. An omnidirectional antenna picks up signals from all directions. The longer an omnidirectional antenna, the better will be its performance. Examples of omnidirectional antennas include half-wave dipole antenna and quarter-wave antenna.
    2. Sectorial Antennas Sectorial antennas radiate primarily in a specific area. The beam can be as wide as 180°, or as narrow as 60°.
    3. Directive Antennas A directional antenna, or beam antenna, is an antenna which radiates greater power in one or more directions allowing for increased performance on transmit and receive and reduced interference from unwanted sources. It has the highest gain and is, therefore, used for long-distance links. Types of directive antennas are the Yagi, the bi-quad, the horn, the helical, the patch antenna, the parabolic dish and many others.
  3. According to Physical Construction
    Antennas can be constructed in many different ways, ranging from simple wires to parabolic dishes, up to coffee cans.
  4. According to Application
    According to applications, there are two categories of antennas, such as,
    1. Base station antennas, and
    2. Point-to-point antennas.
Each of these antennas suggests different types of antennas for their purpose. Base stations are used for multipoint access. Two choices are omni antennas which radiate equally in all directions, or sectorial antennas, which focus into a small area. Point-to-point antennas are used to connect two single locations together. Directive antennas are the primary choice for this application.

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