A waveguide is a hollow conducting pipe, of uniform cross section, used to transport high-frequency electromagnetic waves (generally, in the microwave band) from one point to another. The main advantage of waveguides is their relatively low level of radiation losses (since the electric and magnetic fields are completely enclosed by a conducting wall) compared to transmission lines. Waveguides are practical only for signals of extremely high-frequency, where the wavelength approaches the cross-sectional dimensions of the waveguide.
Advantages of Waveguides over Conventional Transmission Lines
Waveguides are simple and rigid. A uniform cross section of a guide can be obtained much easily compared to uniform spacing between the conductors.
There are no radiation losses as the field is confined within the guide.
There is no dielectric loss due to absence of any inner conductor.
Ohmic power losses are also reduced in waveguides as compared to conventional transmission lines due to greater current-carrying over waveguide walls and absence of an inner conductor with less diameter and higher current density.
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