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Operational Amplifier

 
Types of Operational Amplifier

 

  1. Inverting Amplifier:

704.png 

Fig. : Inverting amplifier

Voltage Gain, 709.png 

  1. Non-Inverting Amplifier

Voltage gain, 714.png

719.png 

Fig. : A non-inverting amplifier

  1. Voltage Follower
    725.png : - for voltage follower 730.png

735.png 

Fig. : Voltage follower

  1. Summing Amplifier
    740.png
    If R1 = R2 = R3 = R,
    Then output voltage is given as : 745.png

750.png 

Fig. : Summing amplifier

  1. Differential Amplifier :
    V0 = 755.png
    760.png
    Put R1 = R3 & R4 = R2
    Vout = 765.png 

770.png 

Fig. : Differential amplifier

  1. Integrator: As its name implies, the Op-amp Integrator is an operational amplifier circuit that performs the mathematical operation of Integration.
    Ideal voltage output for the OP-amp Integrator as:

776.png 

781.png 

Fig. : Integrator

  1. Differentiator Amplifier: The differentiator amplifier circuit performs the mathematical operation of Differentiation.

Vo = –Rf C 786.png

791.png 

Fig. : Differentiator amplifier


 

IC-555 TIMER

796.png 

Fig. : 8-PIN DIP 555 timer

IC-555 Timer as Astable Multivibrator

The time during which the capacitor charges from 1/3 Vcc to 2/3 Vcc is equal to the time the output is high and given by

tc = 0.693 (R1 + R2) C1


Similarly the time during which the capacitor discharges from 2/3Vcc to 1/3Vcc is equal to the time the output is low and is given by
td = 0.693 R2 C1


Hence the total period of the output waveform is
T = tc + td = 0.693 (R1 + 2 R2) C1
 

801.png 

Fig. : IC timer 555 in astable mode


Duty cycle. 
The duty-cycle is the ratio of time in the high state to the total period, T and is given by

806.png 


Frequency of oscillation.
 Frequency of oscillation is given by

811.png 

 

816.png 

Fig. : Voltage across capacitor C1 and output voltage waveforms

IC-555 Timer as Monostable Multivibrator

The time during which output at pin 3 is high is given by tc = 1.11 R1 C1 second

where C is in farad and R is in ohm. The equation clearly shows that width of the output pulse depends on the values of R1 and C1 only
 

821.png 

Fig. : IC 555 in monostable mode
 

827.png 

Fig. : Output waveforms





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