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ANALOGIES

Analogies, literally means a comparison or a comparable similarity. A student has to find a pair of words in the same relation or a similar relation as that of the given pair of words. Analogy is in a sense, a test of vocabulary since you need to know the meaning of the words given, but in a broader sense it is a test of reasoning ability. To know the meaning of the words will not be enough if one is not able to understand clearly what the relation between the pairs of words is. Therefore, there are two things that are important to attempt a question on analogy :
(i) Meaning of all given words
(ii) Relationship between the given pairs of words
There are different kinds of relationships that could be drawn from daily usage but some common relationships are given below:
  1. CAUSE : EFFECT
    Liquor : Intoxication → Liquor causes intoxication
    Wound : pain → wound causes pain.
    In this relation the first word is the cause for the second and the second is the result of the first
  2. PURPOSE
     
    Bottle : Cork  a cork is used to close a bottle
     
    Dress : cloth  cloth is used to make a dress
     
    In this relation, one word is used for another, there is a purpose between the two
  3. OBJECT : ACTION
     
    Gun : Fire  you fire a gun
     
    Violin : play  you play a violin
     
    In this, one term is an object and the other action undertaken with the help of that object.
  4. ACTION : OBJECT
     
    Foment : Riot  you foment a riot
     
    Wear : clothes  you wear clothes
     
    This is opposite to the previous relation, here the first word is the action and the second the object with which that action is done.
  5. PART : WHOLE
     
    Book : Literature  a book is a part of the larger body of literature
     
    Ship : fleet  ship is a part of the collection called fleet
     
    In this relation, the first word will in the same way be a constituent of a bigger body represented by the second word.
  6. SYNONYMS
     
    Abundant : ample  ample means the same as abundant
     
    Skilled : adroit  the two words are synonymous, i.e., they mean the same
     
    This relation is when both the words are synonyms
  7. ANTONYMS :
     
    Abstinence : indulgence  indulgence means the opposite of Abstinence
     
    Legitimate : Unlawful  Legitimate means legal which is the opposite of unlawful
     
    In this relation, the two words are opposite to each other in meaning.
  8. SECONDARY SYNONYMS
     
    Callous : Indifference  The synonym of callous will be indifferent, since both words are adjectives but rather the noun form. Indifference has been given in the relation
     
    Brainwave : Inspired  The synonym of Brainwave is inspiration, but instead the second word in this relation is Inspired - the one who has inspiration.
     
    In this relation, the two words are not directly synonymous but a slight mutation of the part of speech has been made in the second word.
  9. WORKER : ARTICLE CREATED
     
    Carpenter : furniture  carpenter makes wooden furniture
     
    compose : music  a composer composes or creates music
     
    In this relation, the first word is the doer and the second is the professional work done by the first.

Tips

Tips
  1. The first and foremost step while attempting an analogy question should be to DEFINE THE RELATIONSHIP. To avoid any errors first define the relationship on paper or in your mind before searching for options. Once you have defined the relationship analyse the given pairs in the light of the relationship.
  2. Always be careful about apparent and easy similarity. These are only to deceive the student as you would be attracted by these options. Always confirm all the options and be highly careful while considering an obvious answer.
  3. Sometimes a word has two meanings, while what may first come to your mind will be the more frequent use of that word, if you cannot find a logical relation between the two words, go beyond the obvious meaning and link the word with the other meaning of the second word.




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